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CPT Codes: 84143, 82533, 82627, 82670, 82677, 82672, 82679, 83001, 83002, 83003 (per specimen), 83520, 84305, 84140, 84144, 84146, 84270, 84410



Some of the signs and symptoms of female hormone imbalance include irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, hot flashes and night sweats, persistent weight gain, hair loss, pelvic pain, fatigue, cold hands and feet, premenstrual syndrome, heavy menstrual bleeding, and breast discharge. This profile measures specific hormone levels that can be used as biomarkers of hormone balance/imbalance. Specific markers included in this profile are the estrogens, testosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, pregnenolone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor 1, sex hormone binding globulin, the adrenal gland biomarkers DHEA-S and cortisol, Inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.  

Estradiol is the primary female sex hormone, which is responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle, skin elasticity, bone strength, and bladder and vaginal health. Estradiol is the most potent estrogen and the one that is present in the highest concentration in non-pregnant, pre-menopausal women. Estradiol is a good marker of ovarian function. Estrone is directly converted from androstenedione or indirectly from other androgens.  Estrone is the primary estrogen in men and in post-menopausal women. Estriol is produced by the placenta, with concentrations rising throughout a woman's pregnancy. Increasing levels are an indication of the health of the pregnancy and developing baby.

Progesterone is important for balancing the powerful effects of estrogen, an imbalance between progesterone and estrogen is linked to weight gain, insomnia, anxiety, depression, migraine, cancer, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and osteoporosis. Progesterone is responsible for preparing the body for pregnancy. Progesterone is used to establish the presence of a functioning corpus luteum and luteal cell function; to evaluate the functional state of the corpus luteum in infertility patients; assess placental function during pregnancy, and as part of the ovarian function test.

Pregnenolone is a precursor substance to all steroid hormones including cortisol, and the reproductive hormones. The formation of pregnenolone from cholesterol is the first step in steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis continues along two paths from pregnenolone. 17-Hydroxypregnenolone is produced from pregnenolone through the enzymatic action of 17-α-hydroxylase. Levels during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle tend to be higher than during the luteal phase. 17-hydroxypregnenolone levels have been shown to be elevated in patients with idiopathic hirsutism.

Prolactin is a hormone whose primary role is to promote breast milk production. It is normally elevated in women during pregnancy and just after childbirth. In women, prolactinomas can cause infertility and irregularities in menstruation.

Insulin-like growth factor 1 is a hormone that helps promote normal tissue growth. Deficiency can lead to lower bone and muscle mass.

Cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal glands, in combination with DHEA-S provides significant information about adrenal function and well as immune system function since the two systems are interconnected. DHEA is the precursor to testosterone and estrogens; therefore, the concentration of DHEA will affect the concentration of these (and other) hormones.

Free and weakly bound testosterone (FWBT), also referred to as bioavailable testosterone, which reflects an individual's biologically active, circulating testosterone. Elevated levels of FWBT are observed in female hirsutism. Decreased FWBT levels have been associated with diminished libido and loss of bone density. Testosterone in conjunction with estrogen is crucial in minimizing hot flashes, sleep disturbances, night sweats, and vaginal dryness.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are synthesized by the pituitary gland and are clinically useful to distinguish primary gonadal failure from secondary (hypothalamic/pituitary) causes of gonadal failure, menstrual disturbances, fertility, and amenorrhea. Both FSH and LH vary over the course of the menstrual cycle, with peaks at time of ovulation.

Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is produced by the liver. SHBH transports testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the blood as biologically inactive forms. Changes in SHBG levels can affect the amount of hormone that is available to be used by the body's tissues.

Inhibin was the name given to a component of serum that was found to inhibit secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone by the pituitary. Inhibin B is used to assess the function of the antral follicles of the ovaries in women (and the Sertoli cells of the testes in men). It serves as an adjunct to follicle-stimulating hormone testing during infertility evaluation. This test can aid in the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumors and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors and helps with monitoring of patients with granulosa cell tumors and epithelial mucinous-type tumors of the ovary known to over-express inhibin B.

Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone secreted from the acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Growth hormone is a pituitary function test useful in the diagnosis of hypothalamic disorder, hypopituitarism, acromegaly, and ectopic growth hormone production by neoplasm.

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